This essay argues that distant reading has a largely distinct genealogy stretching back many decades before the advent of the internet — a genealogy that is not for the most part centrally concerned with computers. It would be better to understand this field as a conversation between literary studies and social science, inititated by scholars like Raymond Williams and Janice Radway, and moving slowly toward an explicitly experimental method. Candor about the social-scientific dimension of distant reading is needed now, in order to refocus a research agenda that can drift into diffuse exploration of digital tools.
A gender system that distinguishes femaleness as having a salient property, whether positive, negative, or neither, might still be regarded as a kind of sexism, whichever way the property goes; but it is a rather different matter from the usual feminist complaint about the patriarchal conception that we find all the way from Genesis to Aristotle to Freud: It looks to be essential to the feminist theory of "sexist language" that a gender system where the masculine gender doubles as the common gender causes or reinforces "phallocentrism" and a patriarchal society.
The title of Germaine Greer's The Female Eunuch  expresses the thesis that the female is seen by patriarchy as a defective male, lacking the key defining organ of, just what, personhood?
Or of sexuality itself? Is the "female eunuch" objectively sexless? The feminine as gammatically the more "marked" gender, however, makes that unlikely. In an ideology that wants to see language as a tool of oppression, embodying an unjust characterization of sexual differences, the actual grammar of gender contradicts the thesis.
The feminine gender is marked by a presence, not an absence. Since this practice clearly bespeaks the genuinely patriarchal nature of Islamic society, it may leave us suspicious that Western "patriarchy" was never really the enemy to Greer, but capitalism and America were.
A recent take on this point can be found in Laura Kipnis: Recall that Freud's slightly contentious phrase for this bedrock female sense of inadequacy was "penis envy" -- which just sounds so retro these days.
Who wants some fleshy old appendage swinging between her legs? Not us, we're quite happy with our own equipment, thank you! Funnily enough, it's not actually psychiatrists who peddle this idea anymore; it's women themselves, since isn't the notion that "something's missing" the dynamic driving the entirety of women's culture?
Pick up the current issue of any women's magazine, tune into a daytime talk show, peruse one of the millions of how-to-land-a-man or how-to-fix-something-about-yourself books, and contemplate the sheer magnitude of anxiety about the lack of something on display.
If something's missing relax, not a penis, don't be so literal -- just somethingluckily that elusive missing "something" can be creatively marketed under an infinite variety of labels, none of which ever precisely fixes anything, which is why women make the world's most dedicated consumers, leaping at the next instant solution to the nonexistent or craftily exacerbated problem, wallets agape.
The female psyche and consumer culture: Yet most men would be astonished to think that it is women who are missing "something"; or, if they are there are candidatesit shrinks to insignificance besides what they've got that men don't.
And Kipnis herself undercuts her own analysis with a later observation: Indeed, if the female genitalia are popularly called the "booty," this is because that word means "treasure," "prize," or "plunder" [ note ]. There is no way in theory or practice that such a thing could be construed as "something missing" -- it is all too real to the crowd of men who are likely to be drawn to a beautiful woman at a party.
The men may know what they are missing, and they go straight for it -- even as, biologically, we see the single egg, in its impassive dignity, beset by hundreds of desperate spermatozoa. How can this possibly be construed to the disadvantage of the feminine?
Unless, of course, the source of the envy is elsewhere, and feminism itself has a misogynistic origin. But all of "sexist language" doctrine as a theory can actually be tested: We would expect that if linguistic gender were a correlate of social form, an engine for the enforcement of patriarchy or a reflection of the existence of patriarchy, then we would find it present in sexist or patriarchal societies and absent in non-sexist or non-patriarchal societies.
In fact, the presence of gender in language bears no relation whatsoever to the nature of the corresponding societies. The best historically conspicuous example is Persian. Old Persian, like Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, had the original Indo-European genders of masculine, feminine, and neuter.
By Middle Persian all gender had disappeared. This was not the result of Persian feminist criticism, nor was it the result of the evolution of an equal opportunity society for women.
It just happened -- as most kinds of linguistic change do. Modern Persian is a language completely without gender.More recently, however, I have noticed that scholars themselves are beginning to narrate intellectual history in the same way: treating all quantitative or empirical approaches to literary history as aspects of a digital turn in the discipline.
I, for one, want to be free to refer to "the brotherhood of man" without being corrected by the language police. I want to decide for myself whether I should be called a chairman, a chairwoman, or a chairperson (I am not a chair).
Paul-Michel Foucault (/ f uː ˈ k oʊ /; 15 October – 25 June ), generally known as Michel Foucault (French: [miʃɛl fuko]), was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.. Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions.
This course was created by Rebecca Epperly Wire. You can contact her through the Facebook community group with questions.
You can say thank you to her with a gift. Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem. Credits: 1 Recommended: 10th, 11th, 12th (This is typically the 11th grade course.) Prerequisite: Literature.
Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc. And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames. The following are thesis for a word essay) that support your thesis statement.
Good literary analysis essays contain an explanation of your ideas and evidence from the text (short story, Your literary analysis essay should have a concluding paragraph that gives your essay.