The basic questions are: In what order do these occur? Do we think a certain way because of the emotions we feel, or do we feel emotions because of how we think? In terms of physiology, do we feel emotions because of the perception of our body reactions, e.
Titchener into the English term empathy. Alexithymia is a word used to describe a deficiency in understanding, processing or describing emotions in oneself as opposed to in others.
Thus alexithymia literally means "pushing away your emotions". Past experiences have an influence on the decision making of today.
Understanding this allows a person to have empathy for individuals who sometimes make illogical decisions to a problem that most individuals would respond with an obvious response. Broken homes, childhood trauma, lack of parenting and many others factors can influence the connections in the brain which a person uses to make decisions in the future.
According to Hoffman everyone is born with the capability of feeling empathy. Definitions vary, contributing to the challenge of defining empathy. Compassion is often defined as an emotion we feel when others are in need, which motivates us to help them.
Sympathy is a feeling of care and understanding for someone in need.
|Various Lists of Emotions||Wednesday, February 25, Borderline personality disorder and sociopaths: This woman has a real sister with BPD and wrote a book based partially on her experiences.|
Some include in sympathy an empathic concerna feeling of concern for another, in which some scholars include the wish to see them better off or happier. Emotional contagion is when a person especially an infant or a member of a mob imitatively "catches" the emotions that others are showing without necessarily recognizing this is happening.
If, for example, emotions are taken to be centrally characterized by bodily feelings, then grasping the bodily feelings of another will be central to empathy. On the other hand, if emotions are more centrally characterized by a combination of beliefs and desires, then grasping these beliefs and desires will be more essential to empathy.
The ability to imagine oneself as another person is a sophisticated imaginative process. However, the basic capacity to recognize emotions is probably innate  and may be achieved unconsciously.
Yet it can be trained  and achieved with various degrees of intensity or accuracy. Empathy necessarily has a "more or less" quality. Recognitions that are both accurate and tolerable are central features of empathy.
In the field of positive psychology, empathy has also been compared with altruism and egotism.
Altruism is behavior that is aimed at benefitting another person, while egotism is a behavior that is acted out for personal gain. Sometimes, when someone is feeling empathetic towards another person, acts of altruism occur. However, many question whether or not these acts of altruism are motivated by egotistical gains.
According to positive psychologists, people can be adequately moved by their empathies to be altruistic. Both males and females with autistic spectrum disorders usually score lower on the EQ and higher on SQ see below for more detail on autism and empathy.
In addition, these aforementioned studies found that female participants tended to score higher on empathy self-report dispositional measures and that these measures positively correlated with the physiological response. Other studies show no significant difference, and instead suggest that gender differences are the result of motivational differences.
According to the Primary Caretaker Hypothesis, prehistoric males did not have the same selective pressure as primary caretakers; so therefore this might explain modern day sex differences in emotion recognition and empathy.
Researchers found that cognitive empathy, rather than emotional empathy, predicted helping behavior towards victims. Consequently, the negative state relief model would predict substantial helping among imagine-set subjects in the same condition, which is what occurred.
An intriguing question arises from such findings concerning whether it is possible to have mixed motivations for helping.
If this is the case, then simultaneous egoistic and altruistic motivations would occur. This would allow for a stronger sadness-based motivation to obscure the effects of an empathic concern-based altruistic motivation. The observed study would then have sadness as less intense than more salient altruistic motivation.
Consequently, relative strengths of different emotional reactions, systematically related to the need situation, may moderate the predominance of egoistic or altruistic motivation Dovidio, But it has been shown that researchers in this area who have used very similar procedures sometimes obtain apparently contradictory results.
Superficial procedural differences such as precisely when a manipulation is introduced could also lead to divergent results and conclusions. It is therefore vital for any future research to move toward even greater standardization of measurement. Thus, an important step in solving the current theoretical debate concerning the existence of altruism may involve reaching common methodological ground.
Studies today enable us to see the activation of mirror neurons and attempt to explain the basic processes of empathy. By isolating these mirror neurons and measuring the neural basis for human mind reading and emotion sharing abilities,  science has come one step closer to finding the reason for reactions like empathy.He chose eight primary emotions - anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust, and joy.
Plutchik proposed that these 'basic' emotions are biologically primitive and have evolved in order to increase the reproductive fitness of the animal. If you ask someone to describe what an emotion is, they might say it is a feeling, sentiment, reaction, passion, excitement, or sensation.
Another definition of emotion is it is a spontaneous feeling arising from a person, thing, or experience.
Happiness is used in the context of mental or emotional states, including positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. It is also used in the context of life satisfaction, subjective well-being, eudaimonia, flourishing and well-being..
Since the s, happiness research has been conducted in a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including gerontology, social. Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
There are many definitions for empathy that encompass a broad range of emotional heartoftexashop.com of empathy include cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, and somatic empathy.
Psychologist Paul Ekman showed that there are six basic emotions that people of all cultures experience and recognize (happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, fear, and disgust). How and when we express these emotions differs radically by the norms of each of our cultures, the so-called display rules.
Some basic emotions – happiness, sadness, anger, and fear – can occur without an object, but others necessarily have objects; these include love and hatred as well as disgust, which can be directed at substances or people .
Table 1 summarizes the basic emotions. Other emotions are complex. These derive from basic.