Electric cars versus gasoline cars essay

Khazarian Mafia January 22 From:

Electric cars versus gasoline cars essay

How to predict the near future Selected energy densities plot [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] In energy storage applications the energy density relates the mass of an energy store to the volume of the storage facility, e.

I would prefer to ignore this controversy — and there are good reasons for doing so, as some of these web sites lack credibility on other counts; nevertheless, as these sites are magnets for large numbers of people who are just beginning to find their way out of the consensus societal trance, they appear to be doing some palpable harm.

So, once and for all, here is my take on the abiotic oil controversy. During the latter half of the 20th century, with advances in geophysics and geochemistry, the vast majority of scientists lined up on the side of the biotic theory. A small group of mostly Russian scientists — but including a tiny handful Western scientists, among them the late Cornell University physicist Thomas Gold — have held out for an abiotic also called abiogenic or inorganic theory.

The abiotic theory holds that there must therefore be nearly limitless pools of liquid primordial hydrocarbons at great depths on Earth, pools that slowly replenish the reservoirs that conventional oil drillers tap. Meanwhile, however, the oil companies have used the biotic theory as the practical basis for their successful exploration efforts over the past few decades.

If there are in fact vast untapped deep pools of hydrocarbons refilling the reservoirs that oil producers drill into, it appears to make little difference to actual production, as tens of thousands of oil and gas fields around the world are observed to deplete, and refilling which is indeed very rarely observed is not occurring at a commercially significant scale or rate except in one minor and controversial instance discussed below.

The abiotic theorists also hold that conventional drillers, constrained by an incorrect theory, ignore many sites where deep, primordial pools of oil accumulate; if only they would drill in the right places, they would discover much more oil than they are finding now.

However, the tests of this claim are so far inconclusive: That is the situation in a nutshell, as I understand it, and it is probably as much information as most readers will need or want on this subject.

However, as this summary contradicts some of the more ambitious claims of the abiotic theorists, it may be helpful to present in more detail some of the evidence and arguments on both sides of the debate.

Towards a better model for the future

Oil at the Core? This is a question whose answer is only partly understood, and it is a complicated one. The planets known to have primordial hydrocarbons mostly in the form of methane, the simplest hydrocarbon lie in the further reaches of the solar system; there is little evidence of primordial hydrocarbons on the rocky inner planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.

On the latter, possibly the hydrocarbons either volatized and escaped into space early in the history of the solar system, or — as Gold theorizes — they migrated to the inner depths. Moreover, the DOE study attributes the methane deposits it hypothesizes to an origin different from the one Gold described.

More to the point, Gold also claimed the existence of liquid hydrocarbons — oil — at great depths. But there is a problem with this: What remains after these molecular bonds are severed is methane, whose molecule contains only a single carbon atom.

For petroleum geologists this is not just a matter of theory, but of repeated and sometimes costly experience: The rare exceptions serve to prove the rule: And, indeed, nearly all of the oil that has been discovered over the past century-and-a-half is associated with sedimentary rocks.

In the very rare instances where small amounts of hydrocarbons are seen in igneous or metamorphic rocks, the latter are invariably found near hydrocarbon-bearing sedimentary rocks, and the hydrocarbons in both types of rock contain identical biomarkers more on that subject below ; the simplest explanation in those cases is that the hydrocarbons migrated from the sedimentary rocks to the igneous-metamorphic rocks.

Years ago Thomas Gold recognized that the best test of the abiotic theory would be to drill into the crystalline basement rock underlying later sedimentary accumulations to see if there is indeed oil there.

He persuaded the government of Sweden in to drill 4. The borehole, which cost millions to drill, yielded 80 barrels of oil.

Even though the project briefly re-started in was a commercial failure, Gold maintained that his ideas had been vindicated. Most geologists remained skeptical, however, suggesting that the recovered oil likely came from drilling mud.

The Russians I must remind the reader that I am actually talking about a minority even with the community of Russian geologists claim successes in drilling in basement rock in the Dnieper-Donets Basin in the Ukraine.

The exploration for these fields was conducted entirely according to the perspective of the modern Russian-Ukrainian theory of abyssal, abiotic petroleum origins. The drilling which resulted in these discoveries was extended purposely deep into the crystalline basement rock, and it is in that basement where the greatest part of the reserves exist.

These reserves amount to at least 8, M metric tons [65 billion barrels] of recoverable oil and B cubic meters of recoverable gas, and are thereby comparable to those of the North Slope of Alaska.

Electric cars versus gasoline cars essay

Second, the appearance of oil in basement rocks is unusual but not unheard of, and there are various ways in which oil can appear in basement rock. In the process of drilling through overlying sedimentary rock, oil can be expelled downward so that it appears to come from below.

Then there are situations where igneous or metamorphic rocks have migrated upward, or sedimentary rocks have migrated downward, so that basement rock covers sedimentary rock in some cases, the overthrust may be hundreds of square kilometers in extent.There are about 8, gas stations offering ethanol free gasoline and only about 1, offering E Russ Finley provides a list of 5 common reasons why drivers prefer ethanol-free over E Jango is about making online music social, fun and simple.

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I have spent quite a bit of time lately thinking about autonomous cars, and I wanted to summarize my current thoughts and predictions. Most people – experts included – seem to think that the transition to driverless vehicles will come slowly over the coming few decades, and that large hurdles exist for widespread adoption.

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